Acute And Chronic Complications Of Diabetes Pdf

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Diabetes is widely recognized as an emerging epidemic that has a cumulative impact on almost every country, age group, and economy across the world. According to the International Diabetes Federation, in , approximately million people were suffering from diabetes worldwide, and this number is expected to exceed million by the year It is estimated that half of patients with diabetes are unaware of their disease and are thus more prone to developing diabetic complications. However, the cost of dealing with diabetes can be unaffordable in terms of money spent and lives lost. In , approximately 5.

Complications of Acute and Chronic Hyperglycemia

Over time, the surge and crash of dissolved glucose and insulin that occurs in diabetes can end up causing irreparable damage to many body organs and systems. Doctors refer to this as "end-organ damage" because it can effect nearly every organ system in the body:.

Hypertension is almost uniformly found in people with Type 2 Diabetes. As the blood glucose level increases our bodies attempt to use various means to lower the concentration of glucose back to "normal" levels. One way the body attempts to do this is by holding more fluid in the blood vessels. This extra fluid causes the pressure in the vessels to increase. Heightened blood pressure, in turn leads to a generalized weakening of the circulatory system.

This can eventually lead to blood vessels bursting in some extreme cases e. Chronically high insulin levels are also associated with early development of atherosclerotic plaques inside blood vessel walls, which lead to further risk of aneurysm, hypertension, stroke, and heart attack.

Eye Disease. Untreated diabetes can lead to a variety of eye problems including blindness and reduced vision. Diabetes is the 1 cause of acquired blindness in people under the age of 65 and is one of the leading causes in older adults. People with diabetes experience damage to blood vessels and nerves in the back of the eye, an area called the retina.

This leads to a condition called "Diabetic Retinopathy. Once it occurs, damage to vision is permanent. However, when identified early enough, many vision problems associated with diabetes can be repaired or avoided.

Individuals with diabetes should have their eyes examined once a year by an eye doctor. People with diabetes can prevent eye problems by keeping their blood glucose under good control, lowering their blood pressure, and cholesterol levels. Kidney Disease Nephropathy. The kidneys main job is to filter blood. In those with diabetes, sugar that is filtered from the blood damages the blood vessels in the kidneys over time.

This process is called "Diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes is the number one reason that Americans are on dialysis. Doctors test urine of patients with diabetes to monitor for kidney failure.

Nerve Damage Neuropathy. Sugar in the blood damages the peripheral nervous system that part of the nervous system that works the arms, legs and other extremities. Complete numbness loss of sensation in the limbs is also common. Patients may also lose bladder control, or the ability to walk.

Male loss of ability to function sexually impotence or erectile dysfunction may also occur. Joint and Foot Problems. Poor blood flow in the limbs combined with nerve damage and reduced or deadened sensation lead to a situation where the extremities feet, hands become easily susceptible to damage and disease.

Damage to joints caused by lack of ability to feel pain properly and ulcers of the feet are common. Foot and limb problems related to diabetes can usually be helped with proper treatment. However, left untreated, wounds can become infected and limbs may require amputation. It is imperative that those individuals with diabetes perform self-foot exams on a daily basis and that they undergo a foot exam by a health professional once a year.

Infections of the Skin. Diabetes can cause a number of skin conditions, including fungal yeast and bacterial infections, skin spotting diabetic dermopathy , and a variety of spots, rashes and bumpy or oddly textured skin patches. Most of these conditions are related to chronically raised blood sugar levels, and become less of a problem once blood sugar is brought under control.

Individuals with diabetes are also at increased risk of all types of infection because of impaired immunity ability to fight infection. For this reason, it is important for people with diabetes to get annual influenza vaccinations and pneumococcal vaccine every five years. Cognitive Issues. As one of the organs most affected by blood sugar fluctuations, the brain is also impacted by diabetes.

Chronic uncontrolled diabetes appears to be associated with memory problems and dementia in the elderly, and may increase risk of Alzheimer's disease. In younger patients with Type 1 diabetes, elevated blood sugar levels were found to be associated with increased difficulty performing mental arithmetic and with decreased verbal fluency performance.

This slowing of cognitive functions was reversible as sugar levels decreased. Will It Last? Immediate Complications of Diabetes. Our Affiliates. Related Topics.

Complications of Diabetes 2017

Diabetes mellitus DM , commonly known as diabetes , is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin , or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss , polyuria increased urination , polydipsia increased thirst , and polyphagia increased hunger. Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include blurred vision , headache , fatigue , slow healing of cuts , and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye , which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes.

Complications of diabetes: acute and chronic

Metrics details. This study assesses the impact of self-reported oral health on the likelihood of experiencing acute and chronic complications among a cohort of previously diagnosed diabetics. Self-reported oral health status was linked to health encounters in electronic medical records until March 31, Multinomial regression models determined the odds of the first acute or chronic complication after self-report of oral health status.

Diabetes complications can be divided into two types: acute sudden and chronic long-term. This article discusses these complications and strategies to prevent the complications from occurring in the first place. Chronic complications are responsible for most illness and death associated with diabetes. Chronic complications usually appear after several years of elevated blood sugars hyperglycemia. Since patients with Type 2 diabetes may have elevated blood sugars for several years before being diagnosed, these patients may have signs of complications at the time of diagnosis.

Diabetes: Preventing Complications

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Objective: To explore the patterns and prevalence of complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM in Jazan region. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection, and the statistical analysis was performed using SPSS ver. Results: The prevalence of one or more complications due to T2DM was The prevalence of cardiovascular complications was found to be 7. The prevalence of retinopathy was estimated as

Over time, the surge and crash of dissolved glucose and insulin that occurs in diabetes can end up causing irreparable damage to many body organs and systems. Doctors refer to this as "end-organ damage" because it can effect nearly every organ system in the body:. Hypertension is almost uniformly found in people with Type 2 Diabetes. As the blood glucose level increases our bodies attempt to use various means to lower the concentration of glucose back to "normal" levels.

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