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- The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention
- Levels of Processing
- Craik & Tulving (1975) Levels of Processing
These are the sources and citations used to research Levels of Processing. Your Bibliography: Craik, F. Levels of processing: A framework for memory research.
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The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention
The Levels of Processing model , created by Fergus I. Craik and Robert S. Lockhart in , describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing. Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer-lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis.
Depth of processing falls on a shallow to deep continuum. Shallow processing e. Conversely, deep processing e. This theory contradicts the multi-store Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model which represents memory strength as being continuously variable, the assumption being that rehearsal always improves long-term memory.
They argued that rehearsal that consists simply of repeating previous analyses maintenance rehearsal doesn't enhance long-term memory. In a study from Craik and Tulving participants were given a list of 60 words.
Each word was presented along with three questions. The participant had to answer one of them. Those three questions were in one of three categories. One category of questions was about how the word was presented visually "Is the word shown in italics? The second category of questions was about the phonemic qualities of the word "Does the word begin with the sound 'bee'?
The third category of questions was presented so that the reader was forced to think about the word within a certain context. The result of this study showed that the words which contained deep processing the latter were remembered better. Familiarity , transfer-appropriate processing , the self-reference effect , and the explicit nature of a stimulus modify the levels-of-processing effect by manipulating mental processing depth factors.
A stimulus will have a higher recall value if it is highly compatible with preexisting semantic structures Craik, According to semantic network theories, this is because such a stimulus will have many connections to other encoded memories, which are activated based on closeness in semantic network structure. The familiarity modifier has been tested in implicit memory experiments, where subjects report false memories when presented with related stimuli.
Specificity of processing describes the increased recall value of a stimulus when presented in the method with which it was inputted. For example, auditory stimuli spoken words and sounds have the highest recall value when spoken, and visual stimuli have the highest recall value when a subject is presented with images. Words are recalled most effectively with data-driven cues word completion if they are read, rather than generated by a subject.
Levels of processing have been an integral part of learning about memory. The self-reference effect describes the greater recall capacity for a particular stimulus if it is related semantically to the subject. This can be thought of as a corollary of the familiarity modifier, because stimuli specifically related to an event in a person's life will have widespread activation in that person's semantic network. Implicit memory tests, in contrast with explicit memory tests, measure the recall value of a particular stimulus based on later performance on stimulus-related tasks.
During these tasks, the subject does not explicitly recall the stimulus, but the previous stimulus still affects performance. The levels-of-processing effect is only found for explicit memory tests. One study found that word completion tasks were unaffected by levels of semantic encodings achieved using three words with various levels of meaning in common.
We especially remember information if we relate it to ourselves. Damage to the hippocampus produces an inability to form or retrieve new long-term memories, but the ability to maintain and reproduce a small subset of information over the short term is typically preserved.
Different sensory modes, by their nature, involve different depths of processing, generally producing higher recall value in certain senses than others. However, there is significant room for the modifiers mentioned earlier to affect levels-of-processing to be activated within each sensory mode. Visual input creates the strongest recall value of all senses, and also allows the widest spectrum of levels-of-processing modifiers.
It is also one of the most widely studied. Within visual studies, pictures have been shown to have a greater recall value than words — the picture superiority effect. However, semantic associations have the reverse effect in picture memories appear to be reversed to those in other memories.
When logical details are stressed, rather than physical details, an image's recall value becomes lower. Auditory stimuli follow conventional levels-of-processing rules, although are somewhat weaker in general recall value when compared with vision. Some studies suggest that auditory weakness is only present for explicit memory direct recall , rather than implicit memory. Within auditory stimuli, semantic analysis produces the highest levels of recall ability for stimuli.
Experiments suggest that levels-of-processing on the auditory level is directly correlated with neural activation. Tactile memory representations are similar in nature to visual representations, although there is not enough data to reliably compare the strength of the two kinds of stimuli.
One study suggests that there is a difference in mental processing level due to innate differences between visual and tactile stimuli representations. Subjects had more trouble identifying size difference in visual fields than using tactile feedback. A suggestion for the lower level of size processing in visual fields is that it results from the high variance in viewed object size due to perspective and distance.
Subjects who perform this task have a different recall value on explicit memory tests than subjects who memorize smells using self-chosen methods. The difference in recall value, however, depends on the subject, and the subject's ability to form images from odors. Attributing verbal attributes to odors has similar effects. Semantic processing of odors e. Several brain imaging studies using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown that higher levels of processing correlate with more brain activity and activity in different parts of the brain than lower levels.
For example, in a lexical analysis task, subjects showed activity in the left inferior prefrontal cortex only when identifying whether the word represented a living or nonliving object, and not when identifying whether or not the word contained an "a".
Levels-of-processing effects interact in various ways with mental disorders. In particular, levels-of-processing effects appear to be strengthened in patients with age-related memory degradation , selectively strengthened in panic disorder patients, unaffected in Alzheimer's disease patients, and reversed in autistic patients.
Memory encoding strength derived from higher levels-of-processing appears to be conserved despite other losses in memory function with age. Several studies show that, in older individuals, the ability to process semantically in contrast with non-semantically is improved by this disparity.
Neural imaging studies show decreased left-prefrontal cortex activity when words and images are presented to older subjects than with younger subjects, but roughly equal activity when assessing semantic connections. Panic disorders appear to modify levels-of-processing by increasing ability to recall words with threatening meanings over positive and neutral words.
In one study, both implicit free recall and explicit memory of emotional aspects memorization of word lists were enhanced by threatening meanings in such patients.
Modern studies show an increased effect of levels-of-processing in Alzheimer patients. Specifically, there is a significantly higher recall value for semantically encoded stimuli over physically encoded stimuli. In one such experiment, subjects maintained a higher recall value in words chosen by meaning over words selected by numerical order. In autistic patients, levels-of-processing effects are reversed in that semantically presented stimuli have a lower recall value than physically presented stimuli.
In one study, phonological and orthographic processing created higher recall value in word list-recall tests. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Memory and aging.
Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11 6 , Learning and Long-term memory. In Fundamentals of cognition Second ed. Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of experimental Psychology: general , 3 , Archived from the original PDF on Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology. Archived from the original on Psychological Bulletin.
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Cognitive Therapy and Research. Wright; G. Rai; A. Exton-Smith; J. Gardiner International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.
Human memory. Amnesia anterograde childhood post-traumatic psychogenic retrograde transient global Decay theory Forgetting curve Interference theory Memory inhibition Motivated forgetting Repressed memory Retrieval-induced forgetting Selective amnesia Weapon focus. Confabulation False memory Hindsight bias Imagination inflation List of memory biases Memory conformity Mere-exposure effect Misattribution of memory Misinformation effect Source-monitoring error Wernicke—Korsakoff syndrome.
Absent-mindedness Atkinson—Shiffrin memory model Context-dependent memory Childhood memory Cryptomnesia Effects of alcohol Emotion and memory Exosomatic memory Flashbacks Free recall Involuntary memory Levels-of-processing effect Memory and trauma Memory improvement Metamemory Mnemonic Muscle memory Priming Intertrial Prospective memory Recovered-memory therapy Retrospective memory Sleep and memory State-dependent memory Transactive memory.
Robert A. Bjork Stephen J. Categories : Memory processes Memory biases.
Levels of Processing
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. Seventy-six college students were randomly assigned first to the single test studied the stimulus words three times and took one free-recall test and the repeated test trials studied the stimulus words once and took three consecutive free-recall tests , and then to the shallow processing level asked whether each stimulus word was presented in capital letter or in small letter and the deep processing level whether each stimulus word belonged to a particular category to study forty stimulus words. The immediate test was administered five minutes after the trials, whereas the delayed test was administered one week later. Results showed that single test trial recalled more words than repeated test trial in immediate final free-recall test, participants in deep processing performed better than those in shallow processing in both immediate and delayed retention. However, the dominance of single test trial and deep processing did not happen in delayed retention.
Vol. , No. 3. Depth of Processing and the Retention of Words in Episodic Memory. Fergus I. M. Craik and Endci Tulving. University of Toronto.
Craik & Tulving (1975) Levels of Processing
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Essay on The Experiment Research Study: Craik and Tulving Aim: To investigate depth processing by giving participants s number of tasks requiring different levels of processing and measuring recognition. Episodic memory: From mind to brain. M Lepage, R Habib, E.