N Type And P Type Semiconductor Pdf

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We know that the p-type and n-type semiconductors come under extrinsic semiconductors. The classification of the semiconductor can be done based on doping like intrinsic and extrinsic as per the matter of purity concerned. There are many factors that generate the main difference between these two semiconductors. The formation of p-type semiconductor material can be done by adding the group III elements. Similarly, the n-type semiconductor material can be formed by adding group V elements.

Intrinsic and extrinsic N-type & p-type Semi Conductors

It is possible to shift the balance of electrons and holes in a silicon crystal lattice by "doping" it with other atoms. Atoms with one more valence electron than silicon are used to produce " n -type" semiconductor material. Therefore, more electrons are added to the conduction band and hence increases the number of electrons present.

Atoms with one less valence electron result in " p -type" material. Therefore, p -type material has only 3 valence electrons with which to interact with silicon atoms. The net result is a hole, as not enough electrons are present to form the 4 covalent bonds surrounding the atoms. In p -type material, the number of electrons trapped in bonds is higher, thus effectively increasing the number of holes.

In doped material, there is always more of one type of carrier than the other and the type of carrier with the higher concentration is called a "majority carrier", while the lower concentration carrier is called a "minority carrier. Schematic of a silicon crystal lattice doped with impurities to produce n -type and p -type semiconductor material. The animations below represent p -type and n -type silicon. In a typical semiconductor there might be 10 17 cm -3 majority carriers and 10 6 cm -3 minority carriers.

Expressed in a different form, the ratio of minority to majority carriers is less than one person to the entire population of the planet. Minority carriers are created either thermally or by incident photons. N -type semiconductor. These are called " n -type" since the majority carriers are N egatively charged electrons. P -type semiconductor. These are called " p -type" since the majority carriers are P ositively charged holes.

Skip to main content. Leave this field blank. Search form Search. Doping Overview Doping is a technique used to vary the number of electrons and holes in semiconductors. Doping creates N-type material when semiconductor materials from group IV are doped with group V atoms.

P-type materials are created when semiconductor materials from group IV are doped with group III atoms. N-type materials increase the conductivity of a semiconductor by increasing the number of available electrons; P-type materials increase conductivity by increasing the number of holes present. The following table summarizes the properties of semiconductor types in silicon.

N-type negative P-type positive Dopant Group V e. Phosphorus Group III e.

Basics of Semiconductor Diodes

It is possible to shift the balance of electrons and holes in a silicon crystal lattice by "doping" it with other atoms. Atoms with one more valence electron than silicon are used to produce " n -type" semiconductor material. Therefore, more electrons are added to the conduction band and hence increases the number of electrons present. Atoms with one less valence electron result in " p -type" material. Therefore, p -type material has only 3 valence electrons with which to interact with silicon atoms. The net result is a hole, as not enough electrons are present to form the 4 covalent bonds surrounding the atoms. In p -type material, the number of electrons trapped in bonds is higher, thus effectively increasing the number of holes.

Semiconductors are materials that have properties of both normal conductors and insulators. Semiconductors fall into two broad categories:. In the classic crystalline semiconductors, electrons can have energies only within certain bands ranges of energy levels. The energy of these bands is between the energy of the ground state and the free electron energy the energy required for an electron to escape entirely from the material. The energy bands correspond to a large number of discrete quantum states of the electrons.

Show all documents When placed in contact, some of the electrons in the n - type portion flow into the p- type to "fill in" the missing electrons, also known as electron holes. Eventually enough electrons will flow across the boundary to equalize the Fermi levels of the two materials. In silicon, this transfer of electrons produces a potential barrier of about 0. When placed in the sun, photons of the sunlight can excite electrons on the p- type side of the semiconductor , a process known as photoexcitation. In silicon, sunlight can provide enough energy to push an electron out of the lower-energy valence band into the higher-energy conduction band.


There are three p orbitals for each n since 2`+1=3 when `=1. we write boron as 1s22s22p1, meaning the n=1;`=0 orbital has two electrons in it (the 1s2 part).


Difference Between p Type and n Type Semiconductor

In this tutorial, we will learn about an introduction to semiconductors as they are an essential part of Electronics. Before understanding several devices like Semiconductor Diodes, Transistors, etc. This part of the tutorial will lay out a key foundation in easily learning the PN Junction, which is next in line.

A semiconductor which is pure and contains no impurity is known as an intrinsic semiconductor. In an intrinsic semiconductor, the number of free electrons and holes are equal. Common examples of intrinsic semiconductors are pure germanium and silicon.

5 Response
  1. Mindy N.

    N and P-type Semiconductors. Neither pure silicon(Si) nor germanium(Ge) are great conductors. They form a crystal lattice by having each atom share all of its 4​.

  2. Jocelyn G.

    N-Type and P-Type Semiconductors. 1–5. The PN Each type of atom has a certain number of electrons and protons that distinguishes it from the atoms of all​.

  3. Jay B.

    An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped ; during manufacture of the semiconductor crystal a trace element or chemical called a doping agent has been incorporated chemically into the crystal, for the purpose of giving it different electrical properties than the pure semiconductor crystal, which is called an intrinsic semiconductor.

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