Coaching Tennis Technical And Tactical Skills Pdf

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Coaching Tennis Technical & Tactical Skills PDF

In tennis especially technical and tactical characteristics are crucial for performance MacCurdy, ; Meylan et al. Technique in tennis is generally characterized by stroke quality of which the key determinants are the combination of ball velocity and accuracy along with the success rate Landlinger et al. A clear relationship between ball velocity and the level of tennis performance exists, with international players producing higher ball velocities than national players Landlinger et al.

Also a relationship between ball accuracy and the level of tennis performance has been shown, although up to now exclusively between experts and non-experts Lyons et al. To our knowledge, only one study has measured ball velocity as well as ball accuracy in youth tennis players Vergauwen et al. In this study, a rally test was conducted on a court with reduced dimensions The results revealed that players with more experience generated a higher success rate, ball velocity and ball accuracy than their less experienced counterparts.

Technical characteristics are needed for the execution of appropriate tactics in a given situation. Consequently, when technical characteristics develop, the quality of tactical characteristics can improve as well Wang et al. Tactical characteristics are defined as the knowledge about in-game adaptations and decision-making activity on the court Elferink-Gemser et al.

Anticipation of actions of an opponent together with making appropriate decisions are important aspects of a successful tactical performance. Players have to deal with these aspects instantly Balser et al. Williams et al. To measure performance characteristics in tennis, field tests have been used Landlinger et al. In this test, players have to direct their strokes to a target point located at the intersection of the baseline and the sideline. In the LTPT, the higher ranked players made fewer errors than their lower ranked counterparts.

Furthermore, they scored higher on ball velocity and lateral stroke accuracy than lower ranked players. However, in this test the risk of the ball landing outside the court is high Landlinger et al.

Previous research in youth tennis showed that on average a rally was between 2. Moreover, data recorded from matches on grass revealed that the average number of rallies per game was approximately six Magnus and Klaassen, Therefore, to be realistic with match play, a new field test should include three strokes per rally, six rallies per game and a target area that is located inside the court.

At the moment, no reliable and valid test exists that includes the aforementioned aspects and measures technical as well as tactical characteristics in youth tennis players. The overall purpose of the current study was to develop a reliable, valid and feasible technical-tactical test that could be used in talent identification and development in tennis.

It was investigated whether the test was reliable and whether differences in position on the youth ranking list would be manifested in the test performance, supporting its validity. Moreover, it was analyzed whether anticipation and decisionmaking influenced the execution of groundstrokes differently in players with different positions on the ranking list.

Finally, it was evaluated whether the test could be applicable for instructors and coaches. Thirty-two youth male players age Elite players were those ranked among the top, while sub-elite players were classified between position 51 and on the ranking list.

Test-retest reliability was assessed in ten subelite players. The Dutch Technical-Tactical Tennis Test D4T consisted of 72 strokes, grouped in four games of six rallies, in which each rally included three strokes. A ball machine Pro Match Smartshot, Mubo, Gorinchem, Netherlands was used to meet the criterion of standardization and to feed balls to the participants. Ball accuracy was measured using target areas to which participants were instructed to direct their strokes.

A large target area 3. A small target area 1. The colored target areas were stitched on a large carpet and a colored cap was placed in the center of the small target area as the main target point. Download Figure Download figure as PowerPoint slide Representation of the half of tennis court including the dimensions of the target areas and the number of awarded points to bails landing m the areas.

Citation: Journal of Human Kinetics 55, 1; Each game was divided into two offensive, two neutral and two defensive rallies, representing different tactical situations as displayed in Picture 2. Offensive rallies consisted of three ball projections just beyond the service line. Neutral rallies comprised three ball projections to the area around the middle of the court approximately one meter before the baseline, and defensive rallies included three ball projections to the sideline and beyond the service line.

The time interval between the ball projections was 2. The forms represent the three ball projections in the tactical situations. The order of the tactical situations i. However, the order of the games during the test was the same for each participant, since the degree of difficulty was increased during successive games. In the first game, during each rally, participants had to return their strokes to the left target area deuce side.

In the second game, they had to direct the strokes to the right target area advantage side and finally, in the third game, participants had to aim their strokes alternately between the two target areas.

In the final game, the target area was determined by lights which turned red either on the left or right side of the court. The lights were positioned on tripods and placed in both corners of the singles court just behind the baseline and after the target areas. A light gate was placed before the ball machine. After a ball passed the light gate, a signal was sent by an interface and computer to the lights with an adjustable delay set at ms.

Following a prescribed protocol and after the signal was given, one of the two lights turned red. The lights were illustrative of the position of an artificial opponent.

Hence, participants had to return their strokes to the opposite side of the red light. The complete test design is displayed in Picture 2. Ball velocity was measured using a radar system Ball coach pocket radar, PRBC and was recorded after each stroke. In the current study, a high degree of reliability was found between the velocity of the radar system and the velocity calculated using captured video images. The single measure intra-class correlation coefficient ICC was.

A total of nine, six and three points were awarded to balls landing inside the small, middle and large target area, respectively, as displayed in Picture 1.

When balls landed outside the target areas, although still in the court on the correct side determined by a given game situation , one point was awarded. When balls landed in the wrong side of the court, outside the singles lines or in the net, zero points were awarded. Due to the nonlinear transformation of ball velocity, the higher the ball velocity, the more a given increment in ball velocity was rewarded, thus the velocity in the formula was squared kph 2 Vergauwen et al. The sum of achieved points was described as the amount of points given to balls landing inside the target areas, the number of strokes was defined as the number of strokes in a particular game, tactical situation or complete test.

The study was approved by the ethical committee of the Medical Faculty of the University of Groningen Groningen, Netherlands, November 19th, and was consistent with the ethical requirements for human experimentation in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Two observers measured the players height and sitting height to the nearest mm, and body mass to the nearest 0. On testing days, participants performed a 10 min warm-up, including 5 min of groundstrokes.

Afterwards, they were alternately tested on an indoor tennis court. In the meantime, the remaining participants conducted a training session at low intensity.

During the test, participants were allowed to rest for 20 s in between the rallies and 90 s after three games, which was similar to match play ITF Tennis. Participants were not limited to a particular stance or grip, but were requested to return balls at their own style except the use of slice strokes and match pace.

Participants were allowed to use their own racket during the test. Before testing, they played four rallies, one of each different tactical situation i. Test-retest reliability was assessed by ten participants who performed the protocol twice within 14 days. Somers, NY was used for the statistical analyses. Scores on the VA-index, ball velocity, accuracy and percentage errors were checked for normality by exploring normality plots and z-scores for skewness and kurtosis.

If values were missing, maximum likelihood estimation was used as substitution method in the missing value analysis. In total 2. The relative and absolute reliability of the D4T were examined using an ICC and a paired t-test, respectively.

The discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the scores on the VA-index, ball velocity, accuracy and percentage errors of the elite and sub-elite players using independent t-tests. Moreover, two univariate ANOVAs were executed with the performance level as a between-subject factor and the game number 1, 2, 3, and 4 and tactical situation offensive, neutral and defensive as within-subject factors for the dependent variable VA-index. These ANOVAs were performed separately, as the VA-index per game number and tactical situation were distinct outcomes which were not possible to analyze together.

The Bonferroni post-hoc test was performed when the main effect of the game number or tactical situation on the performance was significant. Finally, the practical feasibility of the D4T was evaluated, although no fixed requirements for feasibility existed Bowen et al. Examples of test criteria for good feasibility are such as that the duration of the test should not take too long, the test should be easy to perform by participants and the number of used materials and test leaders should be considerably small.

The results for the test-retest reliability of ten participants showed good relative as well as absolute reliability as presented in Table 1. Figure 1 presents the Bland-Altman plot of the test-retest reliability of the VA-index. The plot shows the difference in the VA-index between the first and the second test-session, a mean difference in the VA-index closer to 0 represents a more reliable measure.

The bold dotted line represents the difference in the mean VA-index between the first and the second test-session. Tables 2 and 3 illustrate the mean scores for the VA-index, velocity, accuracy, and percentage errors for the elite and sub-elite players in the D4T in total, and in the different games and tactical situations, respectively.

The elite players scored significantly higher than the sub-elite ones on all variables. This means that the players with a high position on the national ranking list tended to have a higher VA-index. The proportion of explained variance was. The maximum time required to prepare the D4T was approximately 15 min and the mean time required to give clear instructions about the D4T to participants was three minutes.

The instructions about the D4T were easy to comprehend. The duration of the D4T was approximately 12 min. The physical demand of the D4T was not very high. In general, the average time required to prepare and administer the D4T to a group of eight participants was three hours. The used materials in the D4T consisted of a ball machine, a radar and light system, cameras and target areas stitched on a carpet.

The minimum number of test leaders required to administer the D4T was two. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable, valid and feasible technical-tactical test that could be used for talent identification and development in tennis.

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Coaching Tennis Technical & Tactical Skills

In tennis especially technical and tactical characteristics are crucial for performance MacCurdy, ; Meylan et al. Technique in tennis is generally characterized by stroke quality of which the key determinants are the combination of ball velocity and accuracy along with the success rate Landlinger et al. A clear relationship between ball velocity and the level of tennis performance exists, with international players producing higher ball velocities than national players Landlinger et al.

Coaching Tennis Technical & Tactical Skills PDF

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Skills are cross-referenced so you can see how they relate to each other and quickly determine how to use them in practice situations. Whether you are a veteran coach or just a beginner, this book will help you take your coaching to the next level by providing you with the tools you need to teach athletes the game of tennis. Through its high-quality and easy-to-use programs, ASEP has educated more than 1.

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The role of parents in the training of beginner tennis players

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  1. Mike M.

    Coaching Tennis Technical and Tactical Skills is a practical resource that will help you become a better high school, club, or college tennis coach. With the.

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