File Name: retrofitting office buildings to be green and energy efficient .zip
By Leanne Tobias. Why does sustainability matter? What is the connection among building energy usage, the introduction of sustainable technologies into the built environment, and climate change concerns?
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- The value effects of green retrofits
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The population has increased as well as their needs for new facilities through development. Moreover, the development is causing an increasing shortage of suitable land Pranoto, To cope with this condition, the government of Indonesia has done several things; one of them is building multi storey development Pranoto, There are many developments in Indonesia which do not apply the concept of green building to support sustainable development Danusastro, ;Putra, Therefore, the development of Indonesia tends not to be compatible with the sustainable development concept.
The basic concepts of sustainable development can be met by applying the concepts of green building in every development. Green building is the concept of design in building sectors that considers the impact on environment especially energy, because the buildings have high energy consumption Sukawi, In addition, the strategies in building design are needed to achieve green building, for example the concept of energy efficiency Putra, Nowadays, a new strategy has been introduced to reduce the energy usage in buildings, namely retrofitting.
Some studies have reported that 30 per cent of energy savings can be achieved through retrofit options in existing office and commercial buildings without compromising the occupant's comfort Chung et al. However, retrofit is a new way for building sectors in Indonesia and it is still being debatable among stakeholders due to high costs and processing time. Therefore, this essay will discuss some requirements of retrofitting for sustainability in Indonesia, which relevant with climate and current condition.
The discussion will be focused on office building in Indonesia, because office building is the highest consumer of energy in buildings sector WWF, Energy efficiency in IndonesiaEnergy is " Meanwhile, EECCHI elucidates the energy efficiency is defined as the efforts to reduce the energy consumption, which is required to produce a type of product or service without reducing the quality. It also states that the suppression of energy efficiency is for demand side management DSM , normally in Indonesia society, the energy efficiency can be assumed as energy savings.
In order to achieve energy efficiency for sustainability, the central government of Indonesia developed a regulation for green building, which is Ministerial Decree no. It is the only regulation which addresses green building in Indonesia in the last two years. The regulation provides the criteria of energy efficient for green building, for instance the use of renewable energy sources which are lowemission and the use of energy efficient lighting and air-conditioning system.
Since this regulation enacted, the central government has set that all buildings in Indonesia should apply the concept of energy efficiency. Moreover, it can be an effective way towards to sustainability Pranoto, Therefore, the consumption of energy efficiency does not mean compromising the occupant's comfort, for instance reading a book in a dark place and turn-off the air-conditioning to save the electricity costs.
However, it can use the energy saving lamp, like compact fluorescent lamp CFL to replace a bulb; this effort can achieve the energy savings up to 40 per cent to generate the same light intensity EECCHI, Generally, communities' activities are also causing the high levels of energy consumption, which reach up to 80 per cent and the rest 20 per cent are caused by technical factors Danusastro, ;GBCI, Energy efficiency and buildingAlong with rapid economic growth and an increasing of the amount of buildings in Indonesia, it is important to implement the energy efficiency based on the Standard National Indonesia SNI in the development.
In terms of energy consumption, normally, most of buildings in tropical area like Indonesia has consumed the energy approximately 45 per cent for air system, 10 per cent for lighting system, 2 -7 per cent for escalator and lift, and 2 per cent for other electronic office equipments EECCHI, Those percentages show an extravagant of energy consumption and it causes an expensive of operational costs as well as green house gas emission.
These buildings include office buildings, shopping centre, schools and universities, health facilities and hotels. Moreover, those buildings are old buildings and have been operated more than ten years.
Therefore, it believes that old building consumes higher energy than new building. In order to tackle that problem, the central government has several steps that could be taken in order to increase the energy efficiency in buildings, such as 1 Upgrading building's performance; 2 Retrofitting for buildings; and 3 Analysing the energy savings system, equipments and products EECCHI, Firstly, as EECCHI states the effort for upgrading building's performance aims to identify the whole energy efficiency problems, level of comfort and the productivity of buildings without abandon the maintenance.
The upgrading of building performance should be focused in the system of improvements, such as air and lighting system, operational and maintenance of buildings. Other general steps are ratings and retrofitting for buildings. Secondly, retrofitting building, this is a process of rebuild an old building or part of building to maximize the buildings performance. As Febrina states that retrofitting is " This process consists several integrated approach from different sectors, such as architecture, structure, mechanical and electrical and interior design EECCHI, In architecture, the structure of buildings can be rebuilt to be more efficient, for example in the utilization of natural light.
Regarding mechanical and electrical, the using of new technology like occupancy sensor and voltage stabilization may reduce the energy consumption and costs. Meanwhile, in interior design, the layout for furniture and material's selection also influence the comfort of occupants Danusastro, Thirdly, buildings must have energy savings equipment and operational system in order to achieve the energy efficiency, such as an efficient Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning HVAC system.
Retrofitting for energy efficiency in office buildingsThe central government of Indonesia has set a program for energy efficiency in office buildings to support a sustainable development based on the Government Regulation no. The objective of this program is to improve the energy efficiency performance in office buildings. Most of these countries have applied retrofitting for energy efficiency and implemented it in different strategy, which is based on their climate condition.
For buildings, this means making changes to the systems inside the building or even the structure itself at some point after its initial construction and occupation.
The development of new technologies mean that building retrofits can allow for significant reductions in energy and water usage. Some of these stakeholders must often locate in the buildings during the retrofitting process. Additionally, there is a technological capacity, tangible and cost demand from organisations, consumers and policy-makers will determine " A true retrofit requires "a quantitatively oriented, benchmarked, fact-based, energy-efficiency retrofit with a clear payback analysis on an integrated multi component effort with performance guarantees" Anthony E.
Malkin cited in Lockwood Therefore, it believes that the implementation of retrofitting can reduce the energy consumption for buildings without compromising occupant's indoor comfort. The retrofitting program is necessary to be implemented in office buildings, because office buildings is the highest sector in energy consumption after industrial sector in Indonesia EECCHI, The noise level can reduce by applying acoustics in walls, double skin windows with laminated glass and sandwich partition with rock wool.
Normally, the noise level is decreased about 25dB as well as the humidity level. Moreover, energy efficiency in interior can be applied by using eco-friendly and economical materials, for instance floor materials, pastel colour selection to reduce the indoor temperature physiologically, modest furniture with pastel colours and non-volatile organic compound non-VOC paintings so as not harm occupants' health and environment.
Secondly, retrofitting for energy efficiency can be implemented by optimizing the natural light to reduce artificial lighting, for example raise the height of ceiling, semi-transparent windows and glass floors, use horizontal blinds to avoid the excessive sun exposure, use a fluorescent lamp with lighting control, zoning and occupancy sensor, and combining indoor lamp with table lamp based on SNI.
Thirdly, for retrofitting air system and thermal condition can be applied by using the air conditioning-variable refrigerant volume AC-VRV multi split system and indoor AC fan coil units. Moreover, the thermal condition can apply by fresh air monitoring through carbon dioxide CO2 detection in indoor space. Lastly, for monitoring and evaluation, the retrofitting for energy efficiency in office buildings should distribute the energy consumption into three equipments, such as AC, lamps and load of electrical socket.
In addition, the indoor fresh air monitoring also should be applied by measuring the amount of water condensate that comes from AC.
Since the central government suggested applying energy efficiency in buildings, MoEMR and DANIDA tried to implement those actions as mentioned above in an office commercial building in This project was hoped become a pilot project for other buildings and may encourage properties sectors and stakeholders to implement retrofitting for energy efficiency. On the contrary, this project is being stop due to some reasons from stakeholders' perspective, for instance high buildings cost, a long process and incertitude with the benefits, whether the retrofit will save the energy consumption and operating costs in buildings.
In contrast, retrofitting is a potential strategy in order to achieve sustainability through energy efficiency Buildings, Castleton et al. The benchmark for indoor temperature is 26 o C, but before this building implements the retrofit, the temperature is more than the benchmarks' threshold as well as the indoor thermal particularly for the AC. Moreover, the level of indoor humidity is also high before retrofit, which is about 60 per cent.
The noise level has reached up to 70 dBA; this number exceeds the standard national threshold for office building. In turn, the post-retrofit condition is much better than pre-retrofit condition. This reduction indicates that this building has save up to 40 per cent of energy consumption per year. Furthermore, the indoor temperature is still on the benchmarks' level, it is slightly declined under 26 o C. Unfortunately, there is no specific study analysis especially buildings costs analysis for this comparative pre and post retrofit, whereas it can support the implementation of retrofit.
Therefore, in order to support and strengthen the implementation of retrofitting for energy efficiency in Indonesia, this essay adopts a comparative of energy consumption before and after retrofit from case studies in Florida Table 1 and Table 2.
This case study took analysed four buildings with different situation, building A and B are residence, meanwhile building C and D are skyscraper building. These building use cooling energy as well, so that the comparison between whole energy and cooling energy is separately analysed. Furthermore, another case study adopt from educational building in United States.
The study case discuss about the building costs between non-retrofitted and retrofitted building. The non-retrofit Table 3 building is a University Centre which originally constructed in This building was designed with few windows and lack of architectural character for education building. Meanwhile, the retrofitted Table 4 building is a Student Centre. This building built as a factory, but then the function was converted as student centre in Actually, the facility of this building was not good, because of the low and dark of its indoor space.
Overall, this building is lack of interest as a campus as well as many facilities is underutilized. Therefore, some experts have tried to establish a renovation for this building, but only in several parts of buildings. In the comparison between these buildings, the building costs for retrofitted building is lower than non-retrofitted one Table 3 and 4.
Conclusion and recommendationsIn conclusion, Indonesia as a developing country has rapidly and dramatically developed since decades ago. High-rise building is the highest sector for development after industrial sector and most of these buildings are commercial office buildings. A huge number of these buildings are impacted to the sustainable development. Unfortunately, the buildings' development was not considering sustainability in the future.
As a result, the buildings sector is the highest energy consumer after industrial sector.
The value effects of green retrofits
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Green building also known as green construction or sustainable building refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LEED is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings which was developed by the U. Green Building Council. Building information modelling BIM is a process involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of places. Building information models BIMs are files often but not always in proprietary formats and containing proprietary data which can be extracted, exchanged or networked to support decision-making regarding a building or other built asset.
According to the U.
Age difference is not clear at all and they all have the same lips which i am guessing are supposed to look sensual but look rather stupid. Will a young maned lion give forth its voice from its hiding place if it has caught nothing at all. But after paoli was forced to flee the island, carlo switched his allegiance to the french. Id slap her up side the head.
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Journal of Green Building 1 November ; 12 4 : 70— This article discusses energy-efficient retrofitting design strategies for commercial office buildings, and examines their effect on energy consumption. The objective of the research was to study how to integrate passive design strategies and energy-efficient building systems to improve building performance, and reduce the energy consumption of existing buildings in three different climate types cold, mixed and hot climates.