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Eftihia Victoria Arkoudis. The Hard Bop Trombone: An exploration of the improvisational styles of the four trombonist who defined the genre , Emmett Curtis Goods.

Historical surveys of women in music have traditionally focussed on accounts of exceptional women as performers and composers. They are associated with the sizable literature on music as a traditional component of women's socialization and education. As a contemporary category of enquiry, the study of women in music is directly related to women's history, itself one of several scholarly research areas associated with the systematic study of gender.

Explaining Inequalities in the Classical Music Profession

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture , including both liturgical religious and secular music. While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from to the Classical period , this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods.

The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. European art music is largely distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation , in use since about the 11th century. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches and durations for a piece of music.

Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the s and s to avant-garde atonal compositions from the s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type.

Nonetheless, a universal characteristic of classical music written since the late 13th century is [8] [ incomplete short citation ] the invariable appliance of a standardized system of precise mensural notation which evolved into modern bar notation after for all compositions and their accurate performance.

The first symphonies were produced during the Classical period ; beginning in the mid 18th century, the symphony ensemble and the compositions became prominent features of Classical-period music. Works of classical repertoire often exhibit complexity in their use of orchestration , counterpoint , harmony , musical development , rhythm , phrasing , texture , and form.

Whereas most popular styles are usually written in song form , classical music is noted for its development of highly sophisticated instrumental musical forms, [6] like the concerto , symphony and sonata. Longer instrumental works are often divided into self-contained pieces, called movements , often with contrasting characters or moods.

For instance, symphonies written during the Classical period are usually divided into four movements:. These movements can then be further broken down into a hierarchy of smaller units: first sections , then periods , and finally phrases. Performers who have studied classical music extensively are said to be "classically trained". This training may come from private lessons from instrument or voice teachers or from completion of a formal program offered by a Conservatory, college or university, such as a Bachelor of Music or Master of Music degree which includes individual lessons from professors.

In classical music, " Performance of classical music repertoire requires a proficiency in sight-reading and ensemble playing, harmonic principles, strong ear training to correct and adjust pitches by ear , knowledge of performance practice e.

The key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation , creating a musical part or score.

The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues , for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic. Although Classical music in the s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation , from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes , keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and both vocal and instrumental performers would improvise musical ornaments.

During the Romantic era, Ludwig van Beethoven would improvise at the piano. The instruments currently used in most classical music were largely invented before the midth century often much earlier and systematized in the 18th and 19th centuries. They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band , together with several other solo instruments such as the piano , harpsichord , and organ. The symphony orchestra includes members of the string , woodwind , brass , and percussion families of instruments.

The concert band consists of members of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families. It generally has a larger variety and number of woodwind and brass instruments than the orchestra but does not have a string section. However, many concert bands use a double bass.

The vocal practices changed over the classical period, from the single line monophonic Gregorian chant done by monks in the Medieval period to the complex, polyphonic choral works of the Renaissance and subsequent periods, which used multiple independent vocal melodies at the same time. The major time divisions of classical music up to are the Early music period, which includes Medieval — and Renaissance — eras, and the Common practice period , which includes the Baroque — , Classical — , and Romantic — eras.

The current period encompasses the 20th century and the 21st-century to date and includes the Modernist musical era and the Contemporary or Postmodern musical era, the dates of which are often disputed. The dates are generalizations , since the periods and eras overlap and the categories are somewhat arbitrary, to the point that some authorities reverse terminologies and refer to a common practice "era" comprising baroque, classical, and romantic "periods".

Beethoven, who is often described as a founder of the Romantic era, and Brahms , who is classified as Romantic, also used counterpoint and fugue, but the romantic and sometimes yearning qualities of their music define their era.

The prefix neo- is used to describe a 19th-, 20th-, or 21st-century composition written in the style of an earlier era, such as Classical or Romantic. Stravinsky's Pulcinella , for example, is a neoclassical composition because it is stylistically similar to works of the Baroque era. Burgh , suggests that the roots of Western classical music ultimately lie in ancient Egyptian art music via cheironomy and the ancient Egyptian orchestra, which dates to BC.

Ancient Greek instruments such as the aulos a reed instrument and the lyre a stringed instrument similar to a small harp eventually led to several modern-day instruments of a classical orchestra. The Medieval era includes music from after the fall of Rome to about Monophonic chant, also called plainsong or Gregorian chant , was the dominant form until about A number of European classical musical instruments have roots in Eastern instruments that were adopted from the medieval Islamic world.

Many of the instruments used to perform medieval music still exist, but in different forms. Medieval instruments included the flute , the recorder and plucked string instruments like the lute. As well, early versions of the organ and fiddle or vielle existed. Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone note, or occasionally in parts.

From at least as early as the 13th century through the 15th century there was a division of instruments into haut loud, shrill, outdoor instruments and bas quieter, more intimate instruments.

The Renaissance era was from to It was characterized by greater use of instrumentation , multiple interweaving melodic lines, and the use of the first bass instruments. Social dancing became more widespread, so musical forms appropriate to accompanying dance began to standardize. It is in this time that the notation of music on a staff and other elements of musical notation began to take shape. With a musical score , a work of music could be performed without the composer's presence.

Many instruments originated during the Renaissance; others were variations of, or improvements upon, instruments that had existed previously. Some have survived to the present day; others have disappeared, only to be re-created in order to perform music on period instruments. As in the modern day, instruments may be classified as brass, strings, percussion, and woodwind. Brass instruments in the Renaissance were traditionally played by professionals who were members of Guilds and they included the slide trumpet , the wooden cornet , the valveless trumpet and the sackbut.

Stringed instruments included the viol , the rebec , the harp-like lyre , the hurdy-gurdy , the lute , the guitar , the cittern , the bandora , and the orpharion.

Keyboard instruments with strings included the harpsichord and the clavichord. Percussion instruments include the triangle , the Jew's harp , the tambourine , the bells, the rumble-pot, and various kinds of drums.

Woodwind instruments included the double-reed shawm an early member of the oboe family , the reed pipe , the bagpipe , the transverse flute , the recorder , the dulcian , and the crumhorn. Simple pipe organs existed, but were largely confined to churches, although there were portable varieties. Vocal music in the Renaissance is noted for the flourishing of an increasingly elaborate polyphonic style. The principal liturgical forms which endured throughout the entire Renaissance period were masses and motets, with some other developments towards the end, especially as composers of sacred music began to adopt secular forms such as the madrigal for their own designs.

Towards the end of the period, the early dramatic precursors of opera such as monody, the madrigal comedy , and the intermedio are seen. Around , Italian composer Jacopo Peri wrote Dafne , the first work to be called an opera today.

He also composed Euridice , the first opera to have survived to the present day. The common practice period is typically defined as the era between the formation and the dissolution of common-practice tonality. The term usually spans roughly two-and-a-half centuries, encompassing the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods. Baroque music is characterized by the use of complex tonal counterpoint and the use of a basso continuo , a continuous bass line.

Music became more complex in comparison with the simple songs of all previous periods. The tonalities of major and minor as means for managing dissonance and chromaticism in music took full shape.

During the Baroque era, keyboard music played on the harpsichord and pipe organ became increasingly popular, and the violin family of stringed instruments took the form generally seen today. Opera as a staged musical drama began to differentiate itself from earlier musical and dramatic forms, and vocal forms like the cantata and oratorio became more common.

The theories surrounding equal temperament began to be put in wider practice, especially as it enabled a wider range of chromatic possibilities in hard-to-tune keyboard instruments. Although J. Bach did not use equal temperament, as a modern piano is generally tuned, changes in the temperaments from the meantone system , common at the time, to various temperaments that made modulation between all keys musically acceptable, made possible his Well-Tempered Clavier.

Baroque instruments included some instruments from the earlier periods e. Some instruments from previous eras fell into disuse, such as the shawm, cittern , rackett , and the wooden cornet. The key Baroque instruments for strings included the violin , viol , viola , viola d'amore , cello , contrabass , lute , theorbo which often played the basso continuo parts , mandolin , Baroque guitar , harp and hurdy-gurdy. Woodwinds included the Baroque flute , Baroque oboe , recorder and the bassoon.

Brass instruments included the cornett , natural horn , natural trumpet , serpent and the trombone. Keyboard instruments included the clavichord , the tangent piano , the harpsichord , the pipe organ , and, later in the period, the fortepiano an early version of the piano.

Percussion instruments included the timpani , snare drum , tambourine and the castanets. One major difference between Baroque music and the classical era that followed it is that the types of instruments used in Baroque ensembles were much less standardized.

A Baroque ensemble could include one of several different types of keyboard instruments e. Though the term "classical music" includes all Western art music from the Medieval era to the s, the Classical Era was the period of Western art music from the s to the early s—the era of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Joseph Haydn , and Ludwig van Beethoven. The Classical era established many of the norms of composition, presentation, and style, and was also when the piano became the predominant keyboard instrument.

The basic forces required for an orchestra became somewhat standardized although they would grow as the potential of a wider array of instruments was developed in the following centuries. Chamber music grew to include ensembles with as many as 8 to 10 performers for serenades. Opera continued to develop, with regional styles in Italy, France, and German-speaking lands.

The opera buffa , a form of comic opera, rose in popularity. The symphony came into its own as a musical form, and the concerto was developed as a vehicle for displays of virtuoso playing skill. Orchestras no longer required a harpsichord which had been part of the traditional continuo in the Baroque style , and were often led by the lead violinist now called the concertmaster. Classical era musicians continued to use many of instruments from the Baroque era, such as the cello, contrabass, recorder, trombone, timpani, fortepiano the precursor to the modern piano and organ.

While some Baroque instruments fell into disuse e. During the Classical era, the stringed instruments used in orchestra and chamber music such as string quartets were standardized as the four instruments which form the string section of the orchestra : the violin, viola, cello, and double bass. Baroque-era stringed instruments such as fretted, bowed viols were phased out. Woodwinds included the basset clarinet , basset horn , clarinette d'amour , the Classical clarinet , the chalumeau , the flute, oboe and bassoon.

Keyboard instruments included the clavichord and the fortepiano. While the harpsichord was still used in basso continuo accompaniment in the s and s, it fell out of use at the end of the century. Brass instruments included the buccin , the ophicleide a replacement for the bass serpent , which was the precursor of the tuba and the natural horn.

Gender and Music Composition: A Study of Music, and the Gendering of Meanings

Towards a Meaningful Instrumental Music Education. Methods, Perspectives, and Challenges View all 21 Articles. Institutions that teach Western classical music in higher education in the West have been increasingly reliant on international students from Asia, particularly China, to fulfill recruitment targets. This article examines research in music performance tuition and the general higher education literature on pedagogy for international students. After demonstrating that Asian musicians feel the presence of a covert racial and cultural prejudice caused by assimilationist values in both Western classical music and in higher education, it reviews various approaches to teaching international students in higher education and brings this into dialogue with research on music performance pedagogy. Identifying various pitfalls of attempting to promote a greater awareness of students from different backgrounds, such as stereotyping and the indiscriminate use of racialized discourses, it argues nonetheless that a greater sensitivity to cultural difference is needed in music performance tuition.

This article examines the prejudices that women continue to experience in the field of composition in the twenty-first century. More specifically, it analyzes the host of factors that may be responsible for this reality from three perspectives: the notion that the language of modernist music is a gendered discourse, the role of precedent in the acceptance of women composers, and the role of societal stereotypes. Finally, it offers suggestions for overcoming the obstacles that prevent contemporary women composers from receiving due recognition. Keywords: music , women composers , stereotypes , Catherine Parson Smith , sexual linguistics , modernism , prejudices. In September , I sat excitedly in my very first seminar in upper-level composition. Only after proving my proficiency in counterpoint, orchestration, set-theory, and harmony was I allowed to enter this final course, and so it was with great anticipation and pride that I awaited the words of the award-winning Master Teacher assigned to pass on to us his pearls of wisdom.


PDF | The inclusion of women within the music profession is a recent of women's participation to the classical music profession in Western.


Classical music

A leading cultural theorist and musicologist opens up new possibilities for understanding mainstream Western art music—the "classical" music composed between the eighteenth and early twentieth centuries that is, for many, losing both its prestige and its appeal. When this music is regarded esoterically, removed from real-world interests, it increasingly sounds more evasive than transcendent. Now Lawrence Kramer shows how classical music can take on new meaning and new life when approached from postmodernist standpoints.

Classical music

Gender and Music Composition: A Study of Music, and the Gendering of Meanings

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture , including both liturgical religious and secular music. While a more precise term is also used to refer to the period from to the Classical period , this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age.

In this study claims that music communicates gendered meanings are considered, and relevant literature is reviewed. We first discuss the nature of meaning in music, and how it is constructed and construed. Examples of statements of gendering in the literature are cited, and the problems identified by writers who have questioned their validity are considered. We examine the concepts underlying terminology that has been used in inconsistent and contradictory ways. Three hypotheses are posed, and tested by means of two listening tasks. Results are presented that indicate that gendering is not inherent in musical structures, but is contributed to the perceptual event by the listener. Composers assemble sound events—pitches, durations, timbres, and silences—to create musical gestures that enact aspects of their inner musical and emotional experiences; the gestures are ordered in sequence to form musical narratives whose purpose is to express and communicate the composer's experiences and ideas to listeners Ballantine, , p.

Inequalities in the classical music profession have come on the agenda in recent years. In the UK, there have been a range of initiatives that promote women, musicians with disabilities, as well as black and minority-ethnic players. These findings raise the question of why inequalities are ongoing, especially if we consider that cultural and creative workers have the most liberal and left-wing views compared to all other industrial sectors.

Teaching Silence in the Twenty-First Century: Where are the Missing Women Composers?
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