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- Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
- Fundamental Electrical and Electronic Principles
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering Books
Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design and application of equipment, devices and systems which use electricity , electronics , and electromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph , the telephone , and electrical power generation, distribution and use.
Electrical engineering is now divided into a wide range of fields, including computer engineering , systems engineering , power engineering , telecommunications , radio-frequency engineering , signal processing , instrumentation , and electronics.
Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations including hardware engineering, power electronics , electromagnetics and waves, microwave engineering , nanotechnology , electrochemistry , renewable energies, mechatronics, and electrical materials science. Electrical engineers typically hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering.
Practising engineers may have professional certification and be members of a professional body or an international standards organization.
Electrical engineers work in a very wide range of industries and the skills required are likewise variable. These range from circuit theory to the management skills of a project manager.
The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are similarly variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to sophisticated design and manufacturing software. Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century. William Gilbert was a prominent early electrical scientist, and was the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity.
He is credited with establishing the term "electricity". In Swedish professor Johan Wilcke invented a device later named electrophorus that produced a static electric charge. By Alessandro Volta had developed the voltaic pile , a forerunner of the electric battery.
In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify. In Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin probably the world's first form of electric telegraphy, using 24 different wires, one for each letter of the alphabet. This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph that moved gold leaf through electrical conduction. In , Francisco Salva Campillo proposed an electrostatic telegraph system.
Between —, he worked on electrical telegraphy and in , he presented his report at the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. Salva's electrolyte telegraph system was very innovative though it was greatly influenced by and based upon two new discoveries made in Europe in — Alessandro Volta's electric battery for generating an electric current and William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle's electrolysis of water.
Electrical engineering became a profession in the later 19th century. Practitioners had created a global electric telegraph network, and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK and USA to support the new discipline.
Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in and documented his vision of how the world could be transformed by electricity. Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure. They led to the international standardization of the units volt , ampere , coulomb , ohm , farad , and henry.
This was achieved at an international conference in Chicago in During these years, the study of electricity was largely considered to be a subfield of physics since the early electrical technology was considered electromechanical in nature. Weinbach at University of Missouri soon followed suit by establishing the electrical engineering department in During these decades use of electrical engineering increased dramatically.
In , Thomas Edison switched on the world's first large-scale electric power network that provided volts — direct current DC — to 59 customers on Manhattan Island in New York City. In , Sir Charles Parsons invented the steam turbine allowing for more efficient electric power generation. Practical AC motor designs including induction motors were independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla and further developed into a practical three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown.
During the development of radio , many scientists and inventors contributed to radio technology and electronics. The mathematical work of James Clerk Maxwell during the s had shown the relationship of different forms of electromagnetic radiation including the possibility of invisible airborne waves later called "radio waves".
In his classic physics experiments of , Heinrich Hertz proved Maxwell's theory by transmitting radio waves with a spark-gap transmitter , and detected them by using simple electrical devices. Other physicists experimented with these new waves and in the process developed devices for transmitting and detecting them. In , Guglielmo Marconi began work on a way to adapt the known methods of transmitting and detecting these "Hertzian waves" into a purpose built commercial wireless telegraphic system.
Early on, he sent wireless signals over a distance of one and a half miles. In December , he sent wireless waves that were not affected by the curvature of the Earth. Marconi later transmitted the wireless signals across the Atlantic between Poldhu, Cornwall, and St. In , Karl Ferdinand Braun introduced the cathode ray tube as part of an oscilloscope , a crucial enabling technology for electronic television.
Two years later, Robert von Lieben and Lee De Forest independently developed the amplifier tube, called the triode. In , Albert Hull developed the magnetron which would eventually lead to the development of the microwave oven in by Percy Spencer.
In , Konrad Zuse presented the Z3 , the world's first fully functional and programmable computer using electromechanical parts. In , Tommy Flowers designed and built the Colossus , the world's first fully functional, electronic, digital and programmable computer.
The arithmetic performance of these machines allowed engineers to develop completely new technologies and achieve new objectives. In Claude Shannon publishes "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" which mathematically describes the passage of information with uncertainty electrical noise. The surface passivation process, which electrically stabilized silicon surfaces via thermal oxidation , was developed by Mohamed M.
Atalla at BTL in This led to the development of the monolithic integrated circuit chip. The development of MOS integrated circuit technology in the s led to the invention of the microprocessor in the early s.
Electrical engineering has many subdisciplines, the most common of which are listed below. Although there are electrical engineers who focus exclusively on one of these subdisciplines, many deal with a combination of them. Sometimes certain fields, such as electronic engineering and computer engineering , are considered separate disciplines in their own right. Power engineering deals with the generation , transmission , and distribution of electricity as well as the design of a range of related devices.
In many regions of the world, governments maintain an electrical network called a power grid that connects a variety of generators together with users of their energy. Users purchase electrical energy from the grid, avoiding the costly exercise of having to generate their own. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid as well as the power systems that connect to it. Power engineers may also work on systems that do not connect to the grid, called off-grid power systems, which in some cases are preferable to on-grid systems.
The future includes Satellite controlled power systems, with feedback in real time to prevent power surges and prevent blackouts. Control engineering focuses on the modeling of a diverse range of dynamic systems and the design of controllers that will cause these systems to behave in the desired manner. Control engineering has a wide range of applications from the flight and propulsion systems of commercial airliners to the cruise control present in many modern automobiles.
Control engineers often utilize feedback when designing control systems. For example, in an automobile with cruise control the vehicle's speed is continuously monitored and fed back to the system which adjusts the motor's power output accordingly. Where there is regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system responds to such feedback.
Electrical engineers also work in robotics to design autonomous systems using control algorithms which interpret sensory feedback to control actuators that move robots such as autonomous vehicles , autonomous drones and others used in a variety of industries. Electronic engineering involves the design and testing of electronic circuits that use the properties of components such as resistors , capacitors , inductors , diodes , and transistors to achieve a particular functionality.
Another example to research is a pneumatic signal conditioner. Prior to the Second World War, the subject was commonly known as radio engineering and basically was restricted to aspects of communications and radar , commercial radio , and early television. In the mid-to-late s, the term radio engineering gradually gave way to the name electronic engineering.
Before the invention of the integrated circuit in ,  electronic circuits were constructed from discrete components that could be manipulated by humans. These discrete circuits consumed much space and power and were limited in speed, although they are still common in some applications. By contrast, integrated circuits packed a large number—often millions—of tiny electrical components, mainly transistors ,  into a small chip around the size of a coin.
This allowed for the powerful computers and other electronic devices we see today. Microelectronics engineering deals with the design and microfabrication of very small electronic circuit components for use in an integrated circuit or sometimes for use on their own as a general electronic component. Nanoelectronics is the further scaling of devices down to nanometer levels. Microelectronic components are created by chemically fabricating wafers of semiconductors such as silicon at higher frequencies, compound semiconductors like gallium arsenide and indium phosphide to obtain the desired transport of electronic charge and control of current.
The field of microelectronics involves a significant amount of chemistry and material science and requires the electronic engineer working in the field to have a very good working knowledge of the effects of quantum mechanics. Signal processing deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. For analog signals, signal processing may involve the amplification and filtering of audio signals for audio equipment or the modulation and demodulation of signals for telecommunications.
For digital signals, signal processing may involve the compression , error detection and error correction of digitally sampled signals. Signal Processing is a very mathematically oriented and intensive area forming the core of digital signal processing and it is rapidly expanding with new applications in every field of electrical engineering such as communications, control, radar, audio engineering , broadcast engineering , power electronics, and biomedical engineering as many already existing analog systems are replaced with their digital counterparts.
Analog signal processing is still important in the design of many control systems. DSP processor ICs are found in many types of modern electronic devices, such as digital television sets ,  radios, Hi-Fi audio equipment, mobile phones, multimedia players , camcorders and digital cameras, automobile control systems, noise cancelling headphones, digital spectrum analyzers , missile guidance systems, radar systems, and telematics systems. In such products, DSP may be responsible for noise reduction , speech recognition or synthesis , encoding or decoding digital media, wirelessly transmitting or receiving data, triangulating position using GPS , and other kinds of image processing , video processing , audio processing , and speech processing.
Telecommunications engineering focuses on the transmission of information across a communication channel such as a coax cable , optical fiber or free space. Popular analog modulation techniques include amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. Once the transmission characteristics of a system are determined, telecommunication engineers design the transmitters and receivers needed for such systems. These two are sometimes combined to form a two-way communication device known as a transceiver.
A key consideration in the design of transmitters is their power consumption as this is closely related to their signal strength. Instrumentation engineering deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as pressure , flow , and temperature.
For example, flight instruments measure variables such as wind speed and altitude to enable pilots the control of aircraft analytically. Similarly, thermocouples use the Peltier-Seebeck effect to measure the temperature difference between two points. Often instrumentation is not used by itself, but instead as the sensors of larger electrical systems.
For example, a thermocouple might be used to help ensure a furnace's temperature remains constant. Computer engineering deals with the design of computers and computer systems. This may involve the design of new hardware , the design of PDAs , tablets, and supercomputers , or the use of computers to control an industrial plant. However, the design of complex software systems is often the domain of software engineering , which is usually considered a separate discipline.
Fundamental Electrical and Electronic Principles
The reason is the electronic devices divert your attention and also cause strains while reading eBooks. Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering has been written primarily for the first year undergraduate students of engineering to help them understand the basic principles of electrical and electronics engineering. The first part of the book discusses the scope of electrical engineering and gives a detailed coverage on network theorems, magnetic circuits, transformer principles, alternating quantities, synchronous machines, induction motors, basic analogue instruments and power systems. The second part of the book deals with the concepts of electronics engineering and provides an in-depth understanding of semiconductors and diodes, transistors, oscillators and amplifiers. Additionally, the book explains the principles of transducers, telecommunication and information technology, digital systems and control systems in separate chapters. EasyEngineering team try to Helping the students and others who cannot afford buying books is our aim. For any quarries, Disclaimer are requested to kindly contact us , We assured you we will do our best.
Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design and application of equipment, devices and systems which use electricity , electronics , and electromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph , the telephone , and electrical power generation, distribution and use. Electrical engineering is now divided into a wide range of fields, including computer engineering , systems engineering , power engineering , telecommunications , radio-frequency engineering , signal processing , instrumentation , and electronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations including hardware engineering, power electronics , electromagnetics and waves, microwave engineering , nanotechnology , electrochemistry , renewable energies, mechatronics, and electrical materials science. Electrical engineers typically hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering.
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Electrical and Electronic Engineering Books
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AC Circuits by Chad Davis, , pp, 7. All About Circuits by Tony R. Analog Circuits by Yuping Wu ed.
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