File Name: international refugee aid and social change in northern mali .zip
Why does it matter? As violence takes on a communal character, civilians, men and women of all ages, are more frequently targeted based on their ethnicity alone. The presence of the state is dangerously waning, with jihadists and armed self-defence groups controlling more and more territory.
- Refugee crisis
- Conflict drivers, international responses, and the outlook for peace in Mali: A literature review
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Following the outbreak of violence in the Gao, Kidal, and Timbuktu regions of Mali, hundreds of thousands of people have fled northern Mali and sought refuge with host communities and in refugee camps in neighbouring countries. As conflict continues in northern Mali, the situation is expected to further deteriorate and pastoral populations are expected to migrate throughout the region in greater numbers. The situation has been exacerbated by an on-going food crisis in eight countries in the Sahel, including Mali, Mauritania, Burkina Faso, and Niger.
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Conflict drivers, international responses, and the outlook for peace in Mali: A literature review
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In Africa many of the refugee flows in recent years have had a strong ethnic dimension; interethnic conflict or conflict between politically powerful groups with minority populations is often an important aspect of who is forced to flee. In most cases the origins of conflict occur in a multiethnic environment, and repatriation if it happens occurs in that multiethnic context, with implications for subsequent relationships between the groups in terms of political, economic, and numeric power. As the primary source of recruitment to a population, fertility is an essential component of postconflict restructuring.
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This literature review aims to reflect relevant empirical and policy analysis together with more up-to-date commentary on the situation in Mali, as of January The conflict in Mali is highly complex and fluid: the situation with regards to the various groups engaged in conflict is developing on a daily basis, as are the responses from local and international actors. Previous Tuareg rebellions in the post-colonial period took place in , the s and
Since January , there has been persistent violence and instability in Mali and in the neighboring countries of Burkina Faso, Chad, and Niger. The conflict has evolved from a separatist rebellion in northern Mali to communal and extremist violence in wide swaths across the Sahel. The region has seen two coups in Mali, a popular uprising in Burkina Faso, and the first-ever civilian transition of power in Mauritania—with one pending in Niger. International and regional responses to the conflict have failed to blunt the escalating insecurity and accompanying humanitarian crises.
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Vulnerability assessment is increasingly recognised as a starting point to identify climate adaptation needs and improve adaptive capacity. However, vulnerability assessments are challenging because of the complexity of multifaceted biophysical, human and institutional factors, interacting at different scales and levels within socio-ecological systems. Using a participatory approach across levels and genders, this paper explores the vulnerability of livestock- and forest-based livelihoods to climate variability and change in Lake Faguibine, northern Mali, where drastic ecological, political and social changes have occurred. Our results show that the distribution of vulnerabilities within livelihoods and groups shifted when the ecosystem evolved from a lake to a forest. New vulnerability drivers have emerged, related to resources availability, access and power relations. In addition, political interests and psychological barriers hinder the local transition to an equitable and sustainable use of forest ecosystem services.
As the crisis in Mali threatens to grow into a full-fledged regional security and humanitarian nightmare, nervous neighboring countries are looking to Algeria to lead a conflict management effort. In many ways Algeria has always wanted recognition as a regional leader. Yet, Algiers worries about being dragged into a Saharan quagmire and seems reluctant or unable to maintain stability in its backyard. Algiers, critical to the success of conflict management and resolution in the region, is in a unique position to influence events in Mali. Bolstering the political transition in Bamako should be a priority.
Ладно, - процедил Стратмор. - Итак, даже в самых экстремальных условиях самый длинный шифр продержался в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ около трех часов. - Да. Более или менее так, - кивнула Сьюзан. Стратмор замолчал, словно боясь сказать что-то, о чем ему придется пожалеть. Наконец он поднял голову: - ТРАНСТЕКСТ наткнулся на нечто непостижимое.
И японцы действительно верят, что Цифровая крепость - это нечто особенное. Самое лучшее из того, что можно найти на рынке.
В Космополитене пишут, что две трети просьб потереть спинку кончаются сексом. Бринкерхофф возмутился. - У нас ничего такого не случалось. - Вот. - Она едва заметно подмигнула.
Пора переходить к решительным действиям. Немец рывком открыл дверь и собрался было закричать, но Беккер его опередил. Помахав карточкой теннисного клуба Мериленда, он рявкнул: - Полиция.
Веспу понесло. Рядом раздался оглушающий визг тормозов такси, его лысая резина заскользила по полу. Машина завертелась в облаке выхлопных газов совсем рядом с мотоциклом Беккера.
Буквы. - Да, если верить ему - не английские. - Стратмор приподнял брови, точно ждал объяснений. - Японские иероглифы.
Не лги, - рассердилась Сьюзан. - Почему же вся переписка Северной Дакоты оказалась в твоем компьютере.