File Name: coming to america a history of immigration and ethnicity file.zip
- 38c. The Rush of Immigrants
- Immigration Records
- Migration in Brazil: The Making of a Multicultural Society
38c. The Rush of Immigrants
Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, millions of people — in numbers which have not been seen since — came to America in pursuit of a better, freer life. On the east coast, most of the huddled masses were met by the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. On the west coast, between and , most were met by the wooden buildings of Angel Island.
There, during this period of great migration, they would meet with a reception quite unlike that given to European immigrants on the East Coast. The reasons for this reception, and the story of this journey, as usual, have their roots in the past. Fifty years beforehand, around the middle of the 19th century, on the far western frontier of the continental United States, immigrants from Guangdong Province in southern China began arriving, fleeing from a land stricken by both natural and man-made disasters and a collapsing rural economy.
Though initially welcomed, when the local economy took a downturn in the s, economic problems were laid at the feet of this highly visible minority by organized labor, newspapers, and in short order, politicians. A number of laws were passed at the local and state levels targeting the Chinese, soon attracting national attention. In order to secure the crucial western states' votes, both parties in Congress supported the first of several acts targeting immigration from Asia.
Despite these restrictive laws, immigrants undertook a Pacific Ocean journey of three weeks, including stops in Honolulu, Manila, Yokohama, Shanghai and Hong Kong. Many passengers could barely afford steerage class travel, and bought their tickets only with the collective help of relatives and neighbors.
These new immigrants believed that they could make that money back quickly in America. Their stories are not well documented and remain waiting to be uncovered.
Dozens of families and individuals ended up at the Angel Island Immigration Station, underwent medical inspection and were detained for weeks because they did not have sufficient funds to reach their eventual destinations. Europeans or travelers holding first or second class tickets would have their papers processed on board the ship and allowed to disembark.
Asians and other immigrants, including Russians, Mexicans, and others, as well as those who needed to be quarantined for health reasons, would be ferried to Angel Island for processing. Initially, customs service officers individually and arbitrarily administered Exclusion; in time, procedures became standardized and as they did, Exclusion enforcement eventually fell upon the Bureau of Immigration, forerunner of today's Bureau of U.
By the first decade of the 20th century, a national system had formed for specifically regulating Asian immigration. This system invoked fear and loathing in the community, and remained a baleful memory for generations.
As part of this system, Immigration officials planned a new facility on Angel Island, the largest island in the San Francisco Bay, far from the mainland. It would replace the old two-story shed at the Pacific Mail Steamship Company wharf previously used to house and process incoming and outgoing migrants. The new station would prevent Chinese immigrants from communicating with those in San Francisco, isolate immigrants with communicable diseases, and, like the prison on nearby Alcatraz Island, be escape proof.
In January , over the late objections of Chinese community leaders, this hastily built immigration station was opened on the northeastern edge of Angel Island, ready to receive its first guests.
The first stop on disembarking at the pier on Angel Island was the Administration Building. Men were separated from women and children, then proceeded for medical exams, a humiliating experience for Asians, whose medical practice does not include disrobing before the leering eyes of strangers or being probed and measured by metal calipers.
Here, they would also be tested for parasitic infections. Consequences could be severe for failing this test, including hospitalization at their own expense or deportation. After the examinations they were then assigned a detention dormitory and a bunk, where they would await their interrogators, the Board of Special Inquiry. Many Chinese immigrants resorted to buying false identities at great cost, which allowed them to immigrate as either children of exempt classes or children of natives.
As citizens Chinese could bring their children to this country, and on return visits to their ancestral villages, claim new children had been born to them.
The immigrant applicant would be called before a Board of Special Inquiry, composed of two immigrant inspectors, a stenographer, and a translator, when needed. Over the course of several hours or even days, the applicant would be asked about minute details only a genuine applicant would know about — their family history, location of the village, their homes.
These questions had been anticipated and thus, irrespective of the true nature of the relationship to their sponsor, the applicant had prepared months in advance by committing these details to memory. Their witnesses — other family members living in the United States — would be called forward to corroborate these answers. Any deviation from the testimony would prolong questioning or throw the entire case into doubt and put the applicant at risk of deportation, and possibly everyone else in the family connected to the applicant as well.
These details had to be remembered for life. Because of return trips to China, the risk of random immigration raids and identity card checks on the street, a paper son often had to keep these details alive throughout their life. In the meantime, immigrants suffered through long waits on Angel Island for these accounts to be taken or to arrive in a world before instantaneous electronic communication.
This period could range from several weeks if the testimony was taken locally to several months to years if the applicant was rejected and appealed the decision. The length of stay varied for travelers from other countries; Japanese immigrants held documents provided by their government that sometimes expedited the process of entering the country, and thus, the majority of the detainees were Chinese.
Wherever they were, until their testimony was taken and corroborated and found its way back to San Francisco, the applicant would languish in detention. In the end, the complaints of the community and public officials regarding the safety of the Immigration Station proved true when the Administration Building burned to the ground in August All applicants were relocated to a mainland facility by November. In , Congress finally repealed the Chinese Exclusion Act in consideration of its ally in the Pacific Theater, thus ending 61 years of official Exclusion.
But there was a twist: while the repeal finally allowed Chinese to become naturalized citizens at last, it continued to limit immigration from China to a mere people a year until After the war, the site was abandoned and deteriorated.
In , Angel Island was established as a state park and the California Department of Parks and Recreation State Parks assumed stewardship of the immigration site. The story of Angel Island as a center for processing U.
Almost Japanese immigrants were sent from Hawaii to the mainland after Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japan on December 7, Close to of these people were first detained in the former immigration barracks on Angel Island, with the other being sent to Sharp Park, near Pacifica.
In addition, at least 98 mainland Japanese immigrants were arrested and brought to Angel Island. For some, Sharp Park was their first site for further screening - those deemed the most "dangerous" were sent to the U.
They were considered internees under the control of the U. Army and the Department of Justice. Those arrested included community leaders, journalists, ministers, mostly of the Buddhist and Shinto denominations, people who worked with the Japanese consulates to help the adjustment of Japanese immigrants, shopkeepers, farmers, photographers and others who were members of kendo and other martial arts clubs or contributed to organizations seen by the U.
In , President Franklin D. Roosevelt had requested the FBI to prepare, in conjunction with the army and navy intelligence units, a list of "potentially dangerous" persons to be detained in case of national conflict.
This became known as the Custodial Detention List and was used to arrest specific people just hours after Pearl Harbor had been bombed. Examining the files that are in the National Archives, some of the ministers were accused of taking orders from Japan though they were never found to have taken any actions against the U. These immigrants were classified as "enemy aliens" although due to the Naturalization Act of which limited naturalization to "free white persons" later modified after the Civil War to include those from Africa and in to include Native Americans , they were unable to become naturalized citizens even if they had wanted to.
They were part of 17, people of Japanese descent who were interned or placed under the jurisdiction of the Justice Department for all or part of World War II. Many were arrested immediately after Pearl Harbor was attacked, even before a declaration of war by the U. S on December 8, As "enemy aliens," they did not have the rights of citizens.
Citizenship rights proved insufficient when Executive Order on February 19, called for the incarceration of all people of Japanese descent on the West Coast, including both immigrants and citizens. In , President Ronald Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act of , which acknowledged and apologized for the fundamental injustice of the evacuation, relocation and internment of Japanese American citizens and permanent resident aliens, provided for a public education fund to inform the public about the internment, and made restitution to those who were interned.
These "enemy aliens" were housed, sometimes alongside prisoners of war, in the former Immigration Station barracks. It appears that most stayed for only a couple of weeks on Angel Island also known as Fort McDowell , before being sent to more permanent camps.
To the best of our knowledge, only men were detained on Angel Island. We have found internment records for a few women who were sent to Sharp Park near Pacifica and then on to internment camps run by the War Relocation Authority, but to the best of our knowledge, they were not sent to Angel Island.
There are few first-hand accounts of life on Angel Island for these Japanese immigrants, especially for those from the mainland. One is an account in Yasutaro Soga's Life Behind Barbed Wire, "Living quarters for all forty-nine of us were two rooms measuring about thirty-six feet by seventy feet on the second floor of an old building that had once been the Immigration Bureau office. Because there were about ninety internees from California already housed there, space was very tight. The beds were tri-level bunks with barely enough walking space in the aisles.
There were about ten windows and one ventilator, but with occupants, air circulation was poor. That night I had difficulty breathing and had a headache. Jukichi Inouye vividly remembered that, "Angel Island was the first place [we went on the mainland]. We were there for about two weeks. We were stripped down naked for physical examinations. Then our clothes were returned to us. It was at that time my watch was missing. Boots were missing…they didn't even investigate that.
We were classified as prisoners of war Nakamura, chapter 9, page 9. Patsy Saiki in Ganbare! Grant: "The men did not mind being photographed, fingerprinted and examined in the nude for 'infectious diseases. Birds welcomed them in the morning, and cherry and acacia trees bloomed in pink and white glory. Such beauty, after ten days in the confining walls of the ship's hold, made them drunk with joy. Saiki described that the internees decided to do something about the food, volunteering to help in the mess hall and cooking rice the way Japanese liked it.
They exercised loudly and joyfully. Read the profile of the Hoshida family to learn more about one family where the father, mother and children all journeyed through the island. Lurline, also included a number of other women traveling with children and we expect they spent a short time on Angel Island as well.
NARA has an online index that allows searches by name for these and other detainees. Please contact us at info aiisf. Kashima, Tetsuden. Judgment without Trial. Suspected criminals, spies, and "human secret weapons": the evolution of Japanese-American representations in political and cultural discourse from Hawai'i to Japan, s.
Doctoral thesis, University of Hawaii at Manoa, The quote above quotes Mr. Proulx, Larisa.
Sample Ship Passenger Arrival page, S. Carpathia arrived at the Port of New York, April 18, Immigration records, also known as "ship passenger arrival records," may provide genealogists with information such as:. We have immigration records for arrivals to the United States from foreign ports between approximately and The records are arranged by Port of Arrival.
Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, millions of people — in numbers which have not been seen since — came to America in pursuit of a better, freer life. On the east coast, most of the huddled masses were met by the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. On the west coast, between and , most were met by the wooden buildings of Angel Island. There, during this period of great migration, they would meet with a reception quite unlike that given to European immigrants on the East Coast. The reasons for this reception, and the story of this journey, as usual, have their roots in the past. Fifty years beforehand, around the middle of the 19th century, on the far western frontier of the continental United States, immigrants from Guangdong Province in southern China began arriving, fleeing from a land stricken by both natural and man-made disasters and a collapsing rural economy. Though initially welcomed, when the local economy took a downturn in the s, economic problems were laid at the feet of this highly visible minority by organized labor, newspapers, and in short order, politicians.
Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle as permanent residents or naturalized citizens. As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. The academic literature provides mixed findings for the relationship between immigration and crime worldwide, but finds for the United States that immigration either has no impact on the crime rate or that it reduces the crime rate. Research has found extensive evidence of discrimination against foreign born and minority populations in criminal justice, business, the economy, housing, health care, media, and politics in the United States and Europe. The term immigration was coined in the 17th century, referring to non-warlike population movements between the emerging nation states. When people cross national borders during their migration, they are called migrants or immigrants from Latin: migrare , 'wanderer' from the perspective of the destination country.
File Type PDF. Coming To. America A History. Of Immigration. And Ethnicity In. American Life. Roger Daniels books are readily simple here. As this coming to.
Migration in Brazil: The Making of a Multicultural Society
A drive along the Rodovia dos Imigrantes shows how much immigration has shaped modern Brazil. Along the way, and in any bar in the country, Brazilians snack on kibe although few realize this croquette of bulgur and chopped meat arrived along with immigrants from the Middle East. From to , between 2 million and 3 million immigrants settled in Brazil. While most came from Europe, significant numbers also arrived from the Middle East and Asia. In Portuguese America, where most colonial-era residents were African slaves and their children, immigrants joined a discussion about Blackness and Whiteness that continues to dominate popular and elite discourses today.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The United States is a country that has been populated, built, and transformed by successive waves of migration from almost every part of the world.
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Коммандер устало опустил глаза, затем поднял их вновь. - Сьюзан, выслушай меня, - сказал он, нежно ей улыбнувшись. - Возможно, ты захочешь меня прервать, но все же выслушай до конца. Я читал электронную почту Танкадо уже в течение двух месяцев. Как ты легко можешь себе представить, я был шокирован, впервые наткнувшись на его письмо Северной Дакоте о не поддающемся взлому коде, именуемом Цифровая крепость.