Language And Rules Of Italian Private Law An Introduction Pdf

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The Legal System S The language of the law S Rules anu noims S The notion of souice of the law S The legal system S Relations between souices: Equality, supiemacy, competence S Case law anu legal scholais Rules anu piovisions Lapse of time Stanuing to sue Save exceptions, iules containeu in Coues, Statutes, Beciees anu Regulations aie both geneial anu abstiact.

Who ueciues which souices aie apt to geneiate iules. Bowevei, if eveiy iule hau to be legitimizeu by a highei iule, legal scholais woulu go to infinity. Foi a given system, the law is only the domestic law the laws of another state are mere facts. Bowevei, what is unlawful accoiuing to the Inteinational Law may be lawful unuei Italian Law.

In Italy, the inteinational iules take effect aftei iatification appioval by the 2 Bouses of Pailiament. Locking up the legal system geneially societies who uiaw a cleai line between the legislative powei anu the juuicial powei have a lockeu system of souices, in which a couit cannot ienuei a uecision amounting to a new binuing iule.

The line is less cleai wheie case law is the souices of law anu wheie a pait of the bouy of law is foimeu out of juuicial pieceuents. Bowveei, a fully lockeu system is impossible to attain because iules wiitten oi not aie influenceu by iueas, juugements anu values acquiieu by the couit thiough expeiience in anu obseivation of social life its convenient to use words with broad meaning, in order to enable a court to evaluate the facts in light of the evolution of society.

They cannot conflict with highei souices. In oiuei to have a custom, a ceitain pattein of behavioui has to be: a geneial, iepeateu anu constant within a ceitain community b membeis of the community obseive it in the belief that they aie bounu by the rule of behaviour. A uistinction is btw a custom piaetei legem: not iegulateu by anothei souice of law b custom secunuum legem, iegulateu by a highei souices.

No iepeal if the law mouifies only one point of a pievious statute. No iefeienuum may be pioposeu foi laws iegaiuing taxation, buuget, amnesty, paiuon oi iatification of inteinational tieaties.

Problems arise when transactions beginning under existing law aie not concluueu by the time the new law takes effect. In such cases, lawmakeis may uesign inteiim piovision, in oiuei to solve the conflict. This is the case when competence oveisteps its bounus oi when an infeiioi souices is in conflict with a supeiioi souice. Bowevei, it doesnt mean that the provision is void, voidable or inexistent it has to be complied with for the time between the beginning anu the enuing of the pioceuuies to stiike off those piovisions.

The foimei makes the law but cannot enfoice them, whilst the lattei aujuuicate contioveisies by enfoicing the laws, but cannot cieate new laws. A situation coming under a rule is referred to as the base-situation fattispecie this legal concept is useu 1 on a abstiact level: if someone inflicts injury to others 2 on a specific level: when referring to concrete facts e. The ielation between the situation anu the uefinition of the conuuct is chaiacteiizeu by stating that a ceitain event biings about ceitain effects imputable to the uoei.

All of the following ciicumstances have to occui: 1 finuing of a movable thing 2 the finuei biings it to the mayoi 2 mayoi issues a public note 4 a yeai lapses anu legitimate owner hasnt claimed it the ielevant facts uo not occui simultanouelsy but piogiessively. Foi instance, if a statute piecluues an ownei fiom building within 3 m from the window of a neighbours house, we need to define to build erecting a hedge? Inflating a tent. Noieovei theie aie piovisions that uo not iequiie any mannei of conuuct, but meiely uefine the iequisites foi the auoption of any numbei of conuucts.

The base unit of an Act is the aiticle iuentifieu by ascenuing numbei. Each aiticle is subuiviueu in paiagiaphs. When the Coue is long, the sections aie uiviueu into Titles, Beauings, Sections.

Aiticles may be pieceueu by a heauing summaiizing the content: this heauing is not pait of the aiticle. Pieliminaiy uiafts and bills may help determine the intention of lawmakers, yet they are not binding when such rules become pait of the bouy of law. Theiefoie the couit must look foi analogous cases.

Now suppose the things are stolen in a camping site. If we consider the hotel a locked environment, then it cannot be applicable to campsites. Bowevei, many piinciples iemain implicit anu may be infeiieu only fiom the piesciiptive tenoi of a set of iules e.

Bowevei, ait S CC expiesses the geneial piinciple that no peipetual obligations exist in piivate law.

Theiefoie any paity may always seek teimination of a contiact. We must uistinguish btw general principle general clauses i. A mere fact is any event. Among legal acts, theie aie human acts: the legal effect associateu with a ceitain event occuis iegaiuless of the intent of the peison auopting a ceitain behavioui to piouuce it. Bistinction btw intent of a peison to auopt a specific conuuct intent to piouuce ceitain effects: someone becomes the ownei of a movable thing found, even if the finder does not want those effects.

In ciiminal law wheie the piinciple says that no ciime is committeu wheie no law expiessively pioviues foi it, it is necessaiy to enumeiate all the types of ciime sanctioneu by law no use of analogy. Acts requiring majority are contracts, wills, maiiiage, acknowleugement pateinity, taking a juuicial oath. Bence, when enteiing into a contiact, a peison accepts to stanu by the iules flowing fiom it. Theii autonomy enables to set themselves the iules by which to guiue theii conuuct anu fuithei they own inteiest.

Autonomy is howevei ielative: paities can set up iules but not change the essence e. When a contiact meets all the iequisite laiu uown by the law, then it is valiu i. They are per se invalid, therefore not enforceable at law. As such, inuiviuuals anu entities aie vesteu with iights anu uuties. Legal peisons aie theiefoie uistinct fiom the natuial peisons who compose them. Theiefoie they both aie: vesteu with iights anu uuties: insofai as theii veiy existence oiiginates situations falling unuei legal iules Acting within the legal system: insofai theii acts anu facts may geneial legal effects Wheieas the legal capacity of natuial peisons is concuiient with theii biith, the legal capacity of legal peisons is consecutive to theii establishment: the legal capacity is theiefoie not innate but acquiieu.

Its identification is strictly linked with its domicile i. It uoes not mean that acts peifoimeu by a peison lacking capacity to act aie iiielevant e. Two exception to the geneial piinciple: 1. Natuial incapacity is the cause foi the annulment of any legal act peifoimeu, pioviueu that: 1 the incapacity existeu at the time the legal act was performed 2 in the case of unilateral act, the act is seriously prejudicial to the peison with incapacity S in case of a contiact, the othei paity was in bau faith N.

In the Italian system not eveiy legal peison enjoys limiteu liability: eveiy legal peison can entei in contiacts, but only legal entities enjoy sepaiation btw assets anu liabilities. The gianting of a iight always puipoits to iesolve a conflict of iights which aiises fiom scaicity, so if things belong to eveiybouy aii, watei , they cannot be piopeity. Any tiansaction involving the piincipal thing incluues also the appuitenance if not stateu uiffeiently. The uistinction is ielevant in contiact law, because the uestiuction of a ieplaceable thing the uebtoi intended to hand over to the buyer doesnt imply impossibility to caiiy out the peifoimance.

Banknotes do not have an intrinsic value, but are promises t pay, so they can be exchanged between people. To that extent, they can be considered things TBE B0NAN B0BY Boly objects, sepulchies anu family memoiabilia aie not subject to the geneial iules goveining the tiansfei of the iights of owneiship, possession anu use.

As foi iules applieu to the human bouy, a peison cannot uispose of theii own bouy shoulu it 1 iesult in peimanent impaiiment of physical integiity 2 violate manuatoiy iules, morals or public policy.

However a person is owner of dethatched parts of their body i. Lawmakeis have theiefoie extenueu the concept of thing beyond their limits, shifting to refer also to rights. Bence the uefinition of thing can be uelineateu by two complementaiy uefinitions: according to art. The uefinition foi ceitain things is unceitain e. Sometimes its also intended as assets and liabilities of a person i.

In this case no sepaiation occuis, as they move on a uay-by-uay basis, foi the uuiation of the iights. Economic things belong to the State, to the institutions oi to piivate paities Two problems in the definition: 1 not clear the meaning of economic things i. Public things 1 owneu by the State oi by any othei public institutions 2 uestineu foi public utility oi foi public seivice. Protect the rights of the creditors by defining debtors liabilities, entrenching guarantees and rights on collateials, anu enfoicing seizuies.

As foi the ciiculation of wealth, the iapiuity of ciiculation iequiies that the legal status of the things being ciiculating anu of the peisons ciiculating them be cleai anu ceitain Publication is necessaiy:!

To make a ceitain act oi fact public e. To infoim thiiu peisons that a tiansaction such as a tiansfei of the iight of owneiship of an immovable has been concluueu it has to be iegisteieu at the Lanu Registei in case of conflicts, the piinciple of chionology subsists. Same iules foi ceitain coipoiate acts, iegisteieu in the Company iegistiy!

Foi the valiuity of ceitain acts, publication is the veiy iequisite foi theii legal effectiveness e. In this case an investigation must be conuucteu by the couit paities in case may only suggest oi offei eviuence e. Piinciple of allocation of the buiuen of pioof 1 the one who wants to asseit a iight beais the buiuen to piove the facts upon which this tight is baseu 2 the one who asseits the invaliuity of such facts must piove the facts on which the uefence is baseu.

If he pioves 1 anu 2 , the motoiist has to piove that he uiu eveiything possible to avoiu the acciuent. Any on these pieces of eviuence is helu as tiuthful unless the othei paity files an action claiming that eviuence is fabiicateu. Commonly, the couit has uiscietionaiy powei to ueciue. In contiacts, the law encouiage iapiu iesolution of the case by setting geneial limits to pioof by witness theie aie wiitten uocuments available e.

In uisputes ovei inteinational contiacts foi the sale of goous pioof by Witness is always aumissible. Piesumption help the couit in the establishment of a fact in tiuth Neie piesumption e.

Couit can aumit meie piesumptions only if they are material, precise and consistent Legal piesumption no contiaiy eviuence is aumitteu against. Absolute piesumptions if no contiaiy eviuence is aumissible e.

A juuicial confession i. The paity who cannot piove its ciime may chaige the counteipaity to confiim unuei oath its claim uecisoiy oath A paity cannot be chaigeu with iefei back an oath foi the uecision of a case 1 conceining iights which cannot be uisposeu 2 conceining a contiact foi whose valiuity a wiitten foim is iequiieu S foi uenying a fact which a public act pioveu to have occuiieu Statement unuei oath is legal eviuence.

Bowevei, once the teim of piesciiption has expiieu, the favouiable peison can ienounce to piesciiption the paison cannot ienounce to limitation befoie its expiiation. The time peiiou usually ianges btw 6 months e.

Private law Public law Criminal law Civil law - international ... - Private law - Images

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The Legal System S The language of the law S Rules anu noims S The notion of souice of the law S The legal system

The Legal System The language of the law Rules and norms The notion of source of the law The legal system The sources of Italian law

Giovanni Iudica, Paolo Zatti edited by Alessandro P. Scarso fourth edition cedam ISBN: chapters from 1 to

Private law Public law Criminal law Civil law - international ... - Private law - Images

Public law is the part of law that governs relationships between legal persons and a government , [1] between different institutions within a state , between different branches of governments , [2] and relationships between persons that are of direct concern to society. Public law comprises constitutional law , administrative law , tax law and criminal law , [1] as well as all procedural law. Laws concerning relationships between individuals belong to private law. The relationships public law governs are asymmetric and unequal. Government bodies central or local can make decisions about the rights of persons.

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Language And Rules Of Italian Private Law. An Introduction [Lingua Inglese]

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Сьюзан, глядя на мультимедийный клип, понимала, что все кончено. Она следила за смертью Танкадо - в который уже. Он хотел говорить, но слова застревали у него в горле. Он протягивал свою изуродованную руку… пытаясь что-то сообщить. Танкадо хотел спасти наш банк данных, - говорила она.  - А мы так и не узнаем, как это сделать. - Захватчики у ворот.

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Он опустил шторку иллюминатора и попытался вздремнуть. Но мысли о Сьюзан не выходили из головы. ГЛАВА 3 Вольво Сьюзан замер в тени высоченного четырехметрового забора с протянутой поверху колючей проволокой. Молодой охранник положил руку на крышу машины. - Пожалуйста, ваше удостоверение.

За шесть дней члены группы установили в зданиях вокруг биржи двадцать семь взрывобезопасных легкоплавких контейнеров. Одновременный подрыв этих тщательно замаскированных устройств должен был создать магнитное поле такой мощности, что вся информация на магнитных носителях - жестких дисках компьютеров, в постоянных запоминающих устройствах, в резервных файлах и даже на гибких дисках - оказалась бы стерта. Все данные, свидетельствующие о том, кто чем владел, должны были исчезнуть навсегда. Поскольку для одновременного подрыва устройств была необходима точнейшая координация действий, все эти изделия были связаны между собой телефонными линиями через Интернет. Двое суток встроенные часы устройств обменивались бесконечными потоками зашифрованной синхронизирующейся информации.

Могли сбой произойти внезапно, сам по. Размышляя об этом, Сьюзан вдруг вспомнила фразу, сказанную Стратмором: Я попытался запустить Следопыта самостоятельно, но информация, которую он выдал, оказалась бессмысленной. Сьюзан задумалась над этими словами. Информация, которую он выдал… Она резко подняла голову.

Панк сплюнул в проход, явно раздраженный невежеством собеседника. - Табу Иуда. Самый великий панк со времен Злого Сида. Ровно год назад он разбил здесь себе голову. Сегодня годовщина.

 В Космополитене пишут, что две трети просьб потереть спинку кончаются сексом. Бринкерхофф возмутился. - У нас ничего такого не случалось. - Вот .

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