File Name: cognitive consistency theory and attitude change .zip
Cognitive consistency is the agreement, coherence, or fit among related beliefs. It is a fundamental topic in psychology research, with a long history that has recently returned to prominence. Over almost a century, cognitive consistency has played an active role in research, if sometimes under such other labels as coherence, compatibility, congruence, balance, and consonance although usually its negative, dissonance. The diversity of labels was compounded by a dispersal of interest across several subareas of psychology and across multiple domains of application. If the phenomenon of cognitive consistency has received multiple labels, all the paradigms that we review are united by a core overall objective: to understand how, why, and when human beliefs are influenced by a desire for consistency. The goal of understanding cognitive consistency has led researchers to employ methods not previously used or not available until recently, such as those of neuroscience.
Cognitive Consistency: Motivational Antecedents and Behavioral presents the behavioral implications of the motivation for consistency. This book discusses the relationship between assumptions and motivation for consistency. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the area of study, empirical problems, and theoretical issues. This text then examines the nature of the motivation for consistency. Other chapters consider the effects of the formal aspects of cognitions. This book discusses as well the behavioral implications of consistency-seeking and the development of theories of cognitive consistency.
People tend to seek consistency in their attitudes and perceptions , so this conflict causes feelings of unease or discomfort. This inconsistency between what people believe and how they behave motivates people to engage in actions that will help minimize feelings of discomfort. People attempt to relieve this tension in different ways, such as by rejecting, explaining away, or avoiding new information. Everyone experiences cognitive dissonance to some degree, but that doesn't mean that it is always easy to recognize. Some signs that what you are feeling might be related to dissonance include:. There are a number of different situations that can create conflicts that lead to cognitive dissonance. Sometimes you might find yourself engaging in behaviors that are opposed to your own beliefs due to external expectations, often for work, school, or a social situation.
In the field of psychology , cognitive dissonance occurs when a person holds contradictory beliefs , ideas , or values , and is typically experienced as psychological stress when they participate in an action that goes against one or more of them. According to this theory, when two actions or ideas are not psychologically consistent with each other, people do all in their power to change them until they become consistent. In A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance , Leon Festinger proposed that human beings strive for internal psychological consistency to function mentally in the real world. A person who experiences internal inconsistency tends to become psychologically uncomfortable and is motivated to reduce the cognitive dissonance. They tend to make changes to justify the stressful behavior, either by adding new parts to the cognition causing the psychological dissonance rationalization or by avoiding circumstances and contradictory information likely to increase the magnitude of the cognitive dissonance confirmation bias. Coping with the nuances of contradictory ideas or experiences is mentally stressful.
PDF | The desire to maintain consistency between cognitions has been change in the other, and (3) the roles of distinct types of consistency principles underlying explicit and implicit evaluations. social cognition, including attitudes, person perception, () dissonance theory, research on cognitive.
Cognitive dissonance: What to know
Cognitive dissonance has been one of the most enduring and successful theories in the history of social psychology. This paper examines the origins of the theory and the controversies it engendered. I then examine the evolution of dissonance as it emerged from a theory focused solely on the inconsistency among cognitions to a more complex set of principles that accommodated the voluminous data that had been gathered throughout the ensuing decades.
Attitudes are associated beliefs and behaviors towards some object. Attitudes and attitude objects are functions of affective and cognitive components. It has been suggested that the inter-structural composition of an associative network can be altered by the activation of a single node.
Despite its long tradition in social psychology, we consider that Cognitive Dissonance Theory presents serious flaws concerning its methodology which question the relevance of the theory, limit breakthroughs, and hinder the evaluation of its core hypotheses. In our opinion, these issues are mainly due to operational and methodological weaknesses that have not been sufficiently addressed since the beginnings of the theory. We start by reviewing the ambiguities concerning the definition and conceptualization of the term cognitive dissonance. We then review the ways it has been operationalized and we present the shortcomings of the actual paradigms.
For this discussion, attitude theories have been organized into four categories see
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